{ "type": "mediaitem", "identifier": "mediaitem_640312", "subtype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossiermediaitem", "title": "Arrival and lairage management", "navtitle": "", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/arrival-and-lairage-management-dossier.htm", "language": "en_US", "metadata" : { "id": 640312, "identifier": "mediaitem_640312", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/arrival-and-lairage-management-dossier.htm", "title": "Arrival and lairage management", "lead": "The majority of pigs being slaughtered are finishers ranging from 70 to 140 kg. Finishers are usually picked up from farms, transported and, at the slaughter plant, most often kept in lairage pens in familiar groups. The general requirement of the Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing is that each pig arriving and handled at the slaughterhouse shall be spared any avoidable pain, distress and suffering. However, after arrival at the slaughterhouse, pigs are confronted with an entirely new environment which they have to cope with, posing major challenges for pig welfare.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/5/6/5/640990_fullimage_lairage%20pen%20with%20destraction.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "Lairage pen with distraction - © EURCAW-Pigs", "photographer": "© EURCAW-Pigs", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "" }, "publication_date": "2022-03-21T08:48+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2022-11-16T16:00+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "tags": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "copyright": "", "external_id": "", "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "gkn_organization": { "title": "", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/eurcaw-pigs-2.htm" }, "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, "contents": [ { "area": "aboutthisdossier", "title": "About this dossier", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": false,"contentarea_leadtext": "This dossier aims to help Competent Authorities and other stakeholders with issues related to welfare of pigs arriving, being handled and in lairage of slaughterhouses. The dossier is updated periodically by the EURCAW-Pigs team. The text is meant to support Competent Authorities, and is not legally binding.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

It is based on EURCAW-Pigs’ “Review on arrival and lairage management at pig slaughterhouses<\/a>”. Three<\/ins> key areas relevant for animal welfare are highlighted: Arrival management; Handling and moving in lairage; and Comfort around resting. The stunning and slaughter process itself is not dealt with.<\/p>

Each EURCAW-Pigs dossier is divided in the following 5 items: 'Legislation', ‘Knowledge’, 'Welfare indicators’, 'Training courses' and 'Inspiring examples'.<\/em><\/p>

Source photo: <\/em>©EURCAW-Pigs<\/em><\/sub><\/em><\/p>" } , { "identifier": "element_21870661", "type": "modularcontent", "gkzindexmanual": { "title": "", "gkz_content_id": ["1007754"] } } ] }, { "area": "legislation", "title": "Legislation", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": true,"contentarea_leadtext": "Council Regulations (EC) No 1099\/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing, and 1\/2005 on the protection of animals during transport, regulate the legal requirements related to arrival and lairage management. In EURCAW-Pigs' Thematic factsheet on arrival and lairage management at pig slaughterhouses, the relevant legal requirements are summarized and presented in conjunction with the three focus areas for inspections.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009<\/strong>, Chapter II, Article 3, states that: <\/p>

“1. Animals shall be spared any avoidable pain, distress or suffering during their killing and related operations.<\/p>

2. (...), business operators shall, in particular, take the necessary measures to ensure that animals: (a) are provided with physical comfort and protection, in particular by being kept clean in adequate thermal conditions and prevented from falling or slipping; (b) are protected from injury; (c) are handled and housed taking into consideration their normal behaviour; (d) do not show signs of avoidable pain or fear or exhibit abnormal behaviour; (e) do not suffer from prolonged withdrawal of feed or water; (f) are prevented from avoidable interaction with other animals that could harm their welfare. (...).” <\/p>

Relevant extracts of the specific requirements are given in EURCAW-Pigs’ “<\/em>Review on arrival and lairage management at pig slaughterhouses<\/a>”.<\/em><\/p>

<\/em>Source photo: <\/em>©EURCAW-Pigs<\/em><\/sub><\/em><\/p>" } , { "identifier": "element_21870471", "type": "modularcontent", "gkzindexmanual": { "title": "", "gkz_content_id": [ "1029879", "1001724", "416278" ] } } ] }, { "area": "knowledge", "title": "Knowledge", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": false,"contentarea_leadtext": "By understanding behavioural and physiological needs of pigs, inspectors and business operators can differentiate between ‘normal coping behaviour’ of pigs in slaughterhouses, or behaviour that indicates prevalence of animal welfare issues. Concerning animal-human interactions, e.g., pigs should be handled as sentient beings, thus respecting their behavioural needs and the stress they are coping with on the day of slaughter. The layout and construction of lairage should encourage pigs to move freely within lairage passageways and races to the stunning area.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

In EURCAW-Pigs' Review on arrival and lairage management at pig slaughterhouses<\/a>, guidance and recommendations to improve the welfare pre-slaughter are given for each of three key areas:<\/p>

Arrival management<\/strong><\/p>

Arrival management and unloading can be improved by strict management for trucks upon arrival in respect to the schedule and the number of pigs being delivered, thereby shortening waiting times of pigs on vehicles. If trucks are not able to unload immediately, e.g., elevating roofs and continuing mechanical ventilation must be ensured. If trucks have to wait at the premises of the slaughterhouse before unloading and have no means of artificial ventilation, the slaughterhouse must provide protected areas and cooling (e.g. ventilated halls) and/or fans.<\/p>

Handling and moving pigs in lairage<\/strong><\/p>

To improve handling and moving, pigs should be moved applying as little pressure as possible. Handlers need to be trained accordingly and hold a certificate of competence. The layout and construction of lairage should encourage pigs to move freely within lairage passageways and races to the stunning area. The size of groups being moved, ramps for unloading, the layout of lairage, lighting management, surfaces of floors, the level of noise and airflows and handling of animals are significant for pigs’ ease of movement.<\/p>

Lairage and comfort around resting<\/strong><\/p>

The purpose of lairage pens in slaughterhouses is to give pigs a chance to rest following arrival to the slaughter plant. Lairage can have a positive effect on a pig’s physical and mental state before slaughter, provided that familiar pigs in groups are maintained, and pigs have enough space to lie in half lateral recumbency, preferably full recumbency with higher temperatures.<\/p>

In the next section, welfare indicators are described, helping to identify welfare issues.<\/em><\/p>

<\/em>Source photo: <\/em>©EURCAW-Pigs<\/em><\/sub><\/em><\/p>" } , { "identifier": "element_21870083", "type": "modularcontent", "gkzindexmanual": { "title": "", "gkz_content_id": [ "1020206", "1020361", "1020356" ] } } ] }, { "area": "welfareindicators", "title": "Welfare indicators", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": true,"contentarea_leadtext": "For three key areas to focus on during inspections, welfare indicators are suggested to identify and manage animal welfare problems, and support the evaluation of compliance with the legal frameworks of Council Regulation (EC) No 1099\/2009 and 1\/2005 that regulate the legal requirements related to arrival and lairage management. Each indicator is described in an indicator factsheet, by suggesting an inspection and scoring method, and summarizing the underlying welfare concern and legal requirements.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

Identification of welfare issues<\/h2>

Relevant welfare indicators at arrival and during unloading<\/strong>:<\/p>