{ "type": "mediaitem", "identifier": "mediaitem_646838", "subtype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossiermediaitem", "title": "Climate control and space allowance during transport", "navtitle": "", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/Climate-control-and-space-allowance-dossier.htm", "language": "en_US", "metadata" : { "id": 646838, "identifier": "mediaitem_646838", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/Climate-control-and-space-allowance-dossier.htm", "title": "Climate control and space allowance during transport", "lead": "Climate control and space allowance during transport is important, e.g. for the homeostatic control of body temperature of the animals. Thermoregulation is necessary for pig welfare (as it affects thermal comfort, heat stress, cold stress and survival). The pig’s ability to thermoregulate depends on maintaining a balance between heat production and heat loss. It is affected by environmental variables like ambient temperature, air speed and humidity. Space allowance during transport is furthermore important to give the animals the opportunity to change body positions, access to water on long journeys and to lie down and rest. Ideally, enough space should also be provided to move away from aggressors during fights.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/5/a/f/640808_fullimage_transport%20%28%C2%A9aarhus%20university%291280.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": 726, "focuspoint-y": 326, "alternative_text": "Transport - Photo © Aarhus University", "photographer": "© Aarhus University", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "" }, "publication_date": "2022-04-25T10:43+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2022-05-13T14:59+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "tags": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "copyright": "", "external_id": "", "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "gkn_organization": { "title": "", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/EURCAW-Pigs-2.htm" }, "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, "contents": [ { "area": "aboutthisdossier", "title": "About this dossier", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": false,"contentarea_leadtext": "This dossier aims to help Competent Authorities and other stakeholders with issues related to climate control and space allowance during transport of pigs. The dossier is updated periodically by the EURCAW-Pigs team. The text is meant to support Competent Authorities, and is not legally binding.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

It is based on EURCAW-Pigs “Review of climate control and space allowance during transport of pigs<\/a>”. Two key areas are particularly relevant for the welfare of pigs during transport and are therefore important to focus on during inspections, i.e. Climate control and Space allowance.<\/p>

Each EURCAW-Pigs dossier is divided in the following 5 items: 'Legislation', ‘Welfare indicators’, ‘knowledge’, 'Inspiring examples', and 'Training courses'.<\/em><\/p>

Source ph<\/em>oto: ©EURCAW-Pigs<\/em><\/sub><\/em><\/p>" } , { "identifier": "element_23183032", "type": "modularcontent", "gkzindexmanual": { "title": "", "gkz_content_id": ["994065"] } } ] }, { "area": "legislation", "title": "Legislation", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": true,"contentarea_leadtext": "The legal requirements related to transport of pigs can be found in Council Regulation (EC) No 1\/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations.\r\nIn EURCAW-Pigs' Thematic factsheet on climate control and space allowance [bijgevoegd voor opname in edepot], the relevant legal requirements are summarized and presented in conjunction with the two focus areas for inspections.\r\n", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

Since 1991, the EU has provided a common legal framework on animal transport which was then updated byCouncil Regulation (EC) No 1/2005<\/a> on the protection of animals during transport. It came into effect on the 1st of January 2007, and aims to provide a level playing field for operators while ensuring sufficient protection for the animals being transported.<\/p>

A description on the specific requirements - as paraphrases from the regulation - is given in EURCAW-Pigs’ review of climate control and space allowance during transport of pigs<\/a>.<\/p>

Source ph<\/em><\/sub>oto: ©Aarhus University<\/sub><\/em><\/em><\/sub><\/p>" } , { "identifier": "element_23183034", "type": "modularcontent", "gkzindexmanual": { "title": "", "gkz_content_id": [ "1152455", "1001724" ] } } ] }, { "area": "knowledge", "title": "Knowledge", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": false,"contentarea_leadtext": "Based on the pigs’ physiological and behavioural needs, the welfare of animals during transport is for a significant part dependent on being able to i) thermoregulate effectively, including being able to access sources of water, and ii) on the ability of the animals to perform basic behaviours such as standing and lying, to adopt a normal position, to minimize risks for injuries, stress and panic. Good and better practices in pig transport were provided by e.g., the Animal Transport Guides project.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

Guidance<\/h2>

In EURCAW-Pigs’Review of climate control and space allowance during transport of pigs<\/a>, suggestions for improved practises for each of two key areas are provided:<\/p>

Climate/thermal control<\/strong>: <\/p>

A good body condition is required to act as both an insulator and an additional energy reserve for creating body heat in cold temperatures<\/strong>. In cold weather, recommendations include, e.g., provision of additional bedding or insulation, increasing weather protection for animals on vehicles, delaying the journey until there are warmer temperatures.<\/p>

Pigs have a very limited number of sweat glands, and therefore the major way pigs thermoregulate is via behavioural adaptation. In hot weather<\/strong>, recommendations include, e.g. increasing the space allowance by at least 30%, being able to access sources of water, provision of electrolyte solutions (required on long journeys), use of showers, sprinklers or spraying systems, when the temperature is over 25 °C.<\/p>

Space allowance<\/strong>:<\/p>

Pigs may be motivated to lie down during transport, and after some time, they will do so if they have enough space. Following Council Regulation EC 1/2005 {Annex I, Chapter VII, D. Pigs}: “all pigs must at least be able to lie down and stand up in their natural position.” In order to comply with these requirements, the loading density<\/strong> for pigs of around 100 kg has been specified as not exceeding 235 kg/m² (0.43 m²/pig weighing 100 kg).<\/p>

The space above the animal<\/strong> (deck height) should be enough to ensure a normal standing position of the animal during transport. Additionally, deck height is important to ensure proper ventilation. SCAHAW<\/a><\/a> recommends that in non-ventilated vehicles 30 cm should be available above the withers, and 15 cm in ventilated vehicles. A minimum ceiling height should also be provided to rescue animals in emergencies.<\/p>

In the next section, welfare indicators are described, helping to identify welfare issues.<\/p>

Source ph<\/em><\/sub>oto: ©Aarhus University<\/sub><\/em><\/p>" } , { "identifier": "element_23183036", "type": "modularcontent", "gkzindexmanual": { "title": "", "gkz_content_id": [ "985297", "1001723", "1001721", "985282", "432757" ] } } ] }, { "area": "toolsforwelfareinspection", "title": "Tools for welfare inspection", "contentarea_template": "contenttemplate_dossier","background": true,"contentarea_leadtext": "Welfare indicators can be used to facilitate welfare inspections during transport of pigs. For two key areas to focus on during inspections, EURCAW-Pigs identified relevant indicators to assess the welfare of pigs. Each indicator is described in an indicator factsheet, by suggesting an inspection and scoring method, and summarizing the underlying welfare concern and legal requirements.", "elements": [ { "type": "text", "html": "

Assessment of welfare of pigs<\/h2>

Indicators to assess climate/thermal control<\/strong>:<\/p>