{ "type": "page", "identifier": "page_43184477", "title": "Dossier test", "navtitle": "", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier-test.htm", "language": "en_US", "languages": [{ "id": 42, "value": "english", "locale": "en_US", "title": "Dossier test", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier-test.htm" }], "metadata" : {"gkn_pagemetadata": { "page_type": { "id": "overview_page", "name": "Overzichtspagina" }, "headerimage": {"error": "no image selected"}, "startpaginalabel": {"id": ""}, "startpage_title": "", "shownavigation": false, "searchidentifier": "", "placeholderzoekbox": "", "lead": "" }} , "contents": [ { "area": "main", "title": "", "elements": [ { "identifier": "element_43184501", "type": "contentitemslist", "subtype": "normal", "title": "", "mediaitems": [ { "identifier": "mediaitem_745831", "title": "Keeping entire male pigs", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/keeping-entire-male-pigs-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "The practice of surgical castration raises concerns regarding animal welfare. Raising entire or intact male pigs is an alternative to castration. In addition to offering an alternative to an aversive treatment, entire males offer several advantages in terms of improved feed efficiency, reduced feed intake and enhanced protein deposition. On the other hand, behavioural characteristics of entire males can lead to injuries and reduced welfare. Enhancing the welfare of entire males requires attention to key aspects in housing and management.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/a/8/0/745842_fullimage_entire%20males%20in%20pens%20with%20restricted%20liquid%20feeding%20%28%C2%A9wur%29.png", "width": 466, "height": 349, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "Entire males in pens with restricted liquid feeding (©WUR)", "photographer": "©WUR", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [ "pigs", "pig", "feeding" ] }, "publication_date": "2023-11-02T11:04+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2023-11-24T16:26+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_722392", "title": "Heat stress on farm", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/heat-stress-in-pigs-on-farm-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "With increasing global temperatures, the risk of heat stress for farm animals is growing. As pigs are not able to sweat and in livestock houses they generally do not have the opportunity to wet themselves, an ambient temperature above the upper critical temperature leads to reduced welfare and performance. This upper critical temperature varies per pig category (including weight) and is considerably lower for lactating sows than for newborn piglets. At high humidity even lower temperatures can lead to heat stress.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/5/1/2/723120_fullimage_ligcomfort-temperatuur%20%28%C2%A9wur%29.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "", "photographer": "© WUR", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [] }, "publication_date": "2023-02-22T16:28+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2023-04-20T12:00+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "2023-02-23T00:00+02:00" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_710572", "title": "Killing on farm", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/killing-on-farm-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Pigs are emergency killed on the farm for various causes. Reasons for killing on farm are, for example, piglets that are not viable or develop severe and incurable disease that occurs or worsens later in life. In these cases, it is always a case-by-case decision and is therefore referred to as euthanasia. On the other hand, sometimes pigs have to be killed on farm for reasons of animal disease control in order to prevent the spread of infections to other animals or humans. This is a large-scale killing, so the terms depopulation or mass-killing are used here.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/3/c/8/710577_fullimage_check%20for%20breathing%20%28%C2%A9fli%29.jpg", "width": 1270, "height": 845, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "Check for breathing (©FLI)", "photographer": "© FLI", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [] }, "publication_date": "2023-01-19T14:40+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2023-01-23T15:21+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_646838", "title": "Climate control and space allowance during transport", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/climate-control-and-space-allowance-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Climate control and space allowance during transport is important, e.g. for the homeostatic control of body temperature of the animals. Thermoregulation is necessary for pig welfare (as it affects thermal comfort, heat stress, cold stress and survival). The pig’s ability to thermoregulate depends on maintaining a balance between heat production and heat loss. It is affected by environmental variables like ambient temperature, air speed and humidity. Space allowance during transport is furthermore important to give the animals the opportunity to change body positions, access to water on long journeys and to lie down and rest. Ideally, enough space should also be provided to move away from aggressors during fights.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/5/a/f/640808_fullimage_transport%20%28%C2%A9aarhus%20university%291280.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": 726, "focuspoint-y": 326, "alternative_text": "Transport - Photo © Aarhus University", "photographer": "© Aarhus University", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [] }, "publication_date": "2022-04-25T10:43+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2023-12-19T13:53+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_640312", "title": "Arrival and lairage management", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/arrival-and-lairage-management-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "The majority of pigs being slaughtered are finishers ranging from 70 to 140 kg. Finishers are usually picked up from farms, transported and, at the slaughter plant, most often kept in lairage pens in familiar groups. The general requirement of the Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing is that each pig arriving and handled at the slaughterhouse shall be spared any avoidable pain, distress and suffering. However, after arrival at the slaughterhouse, pigs are confronted with an entirely new environment which they have to cope with, posing major challenges for pig welfare.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/5/6/5/640990_fullimage_lairage%20pen%20with%20destraction.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "Lairage pen with distraction - © EURCAW-Pigs", "photographer": "© EURCAW-Pigs", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [] }, "publication_date": "2022-03-21T08:48+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2024-02-16T10:53+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_637939", "title": "Pig stunning and bleeding", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/pig-stunning-and-bleeding-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Slaughter must legally spare animals any avoidable pain, distress or suffering. This implies that moving animals into the stunner and holding them there for the purpose of stunning must be done without causing undue fear and distress as may be shown by animals vocalising and trying to turn back or being reluctant to move. Stunning should apply proper electric current or CO2 concentrations such that animals rapidly lose consciousness and do not recover before they have been killed by bleeding.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/f/5/4/637937_fullimage_head-to-body%20stunning%20%28%C2%A9a.%20velarde%2C%20irta%29.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": 601, "focuspoint-y": 409, "alternative_text": "Head-to-body stunning - © A. Velarde, IRTA", "photographer": "© A. Velarde, IRTA", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [ "head", "pigs", "stunning", "body", "pig" ] }, "publication_date": "2022-03-09T11:07+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2024-02-16T10:54+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_637925", "title": "Group-housing and mixing of sows", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/group-housing-and-mixing-of-sows-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Council Directive 2008/120/EC laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs states that pregnant sows must be housed in groups from four weeks after service until one week before the expected time of farrowing. Mixing of unfamiliar sows leads to agonistic behaviour to establish social relationships, and is therefore a challenge to sow health and welfare. Further challenges for sow welfare are: living in groups associated with competition for limited resources (especially food), lack of satiety due to restrictive feeding of pregnant sows, and climate and climate and resting comfort, in particular on heat stress.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/d/f/4/637935_fullimage_dynamic%20group%20%28%C2%A9fli%2C%20a.%20schubbert%29.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": 790, "focuspoint-y": 262, "alternative_text": "Dynamic group - © FLI, A. Schubbert", "photographer": "© FLI, A. Schubbert", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [ "pigs", "housing", "mixing", "sows", "pig", "group" ] }, "publication_date": "2022-03-09T09:40+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2024-02-16T10:52+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_637923", "title": "Farrowing housing and management", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/farrowing-housing-and-management-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Health and welfare of sows is especially challenged with severe space restriction (e.g. in conventional crates), heat stress during warm periods, lack of nest building materials, and large litters. Challenges for the health and welfare of piglets – possibly leading to reduced growth and increased mortality - include high competition for teats, limited space for resting and for suckling, lack of exploratory material, and mutilations. Risks can be considerably reduced if correct measures and practices are introduced to meet the needs of sows and piglets.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/1/5/9/637934_fullimage_nest%20building%20-%20jute%20sack%20%28photo%20wur%29.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "Nest building jute sack - © WUR", "photographer": "© WUR", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [ "pigs", "piglets", "housing", "farrowing", "sow", "piglet", "nest", "jute", "pig" ] }, "publication_date": "2022-03-09T09:37+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2024-02-16T10:55+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_637922", "title": "Fitness for transport", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/fitness-for-transport-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Across the different pig categories, transport is a multifactorial stressor. For some pigs with certain pre-transport characteristics (of which some, but not all, are related to animal health), the challenges of transport are larger than average, possibly leading to serious welfare concerns or even death. Such pigs are unfit for transport.", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/f/3/7/641176_fullimage_pigs%20in%20truck%20%28%C2%A9fli%29.jpg", "width": 3872, "height": 2592, "focuspoint-x": 2274, "focuspoint-y": 1352, "alternative_text": "Pigs in truck - © FLI", "photographer": "© FLI", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [] }, "publication_date": "2022-03-09T09:18+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2023-12-19T13:52+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } }, { "identifier": "mediaitem_618713", "title": "Tail biting and tail docking", "contenttype": "wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "contenttype_title": "contenttype_wmammodularcontent_gkn_dossier", "link": { "type": "internal", "url": "/en/eurcaw-pigs/dossier/tail-biting-and-tail-docking-dossier.htm" }, "lead": "Routine tail docking, although banned in the EU, is persistent in conventional pig farming as it reduces the risk of tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour of pigs related to suboptimal housing and/or management involving stress and reduced welfare. It is associated with an inability to perform species-specific behaviours related to exploration (enrichment) and searching for food (rooting).", "leadimage": { "source": "https://api.groenkennisnet.nl/upload_mm/b/3/a/637933_fullimage_pen%20enrichment%20%28%C2%A9wur%291280.jpg", "width": 1280, "height": 720, "focuspoint-x": -1, "focuspoint-y": -1, "alternative_text": "Pen enrichment - © WUR", "photographer": "© WUR", "photographer_hyperlink": "", "photo_license": "", "photo_license_hyperlink": "", "source_info": "", "source_info_hyperlink": "", "keywords": [ "pigs", "enrichment", "docking", "tail", "biting", "pig" ] }, "publication_date": "2022-02-23T13:42+02:00", "lastmodified_date": "2024-02-16T10:51+02:00", "expiration_date": "", "keywords": [ "Dossier", "gkn_eurcaw", "English" ], "item_metadata": { "contentsubtype": "Dossier", "theme": ["gkn_eurcaw"], "keywords": [], "video_header": "", "contactperson": { "title": "EURCAW-Pigs", "url": "/en/groenkennisnet/person/editors-eurcaw-pigs.htm" }, "experts": [], "link_extra_image": "", "last_update": "" } } ] } ] } ] }